一点题外话:kubernetes官方3月25号发布1.14,本文28号完成。1.14升级安装中文指南,目前全网大概最新吧,支持请赏个赞。

升级准备

本次升级主要参考官方Upgrading kubeadm clusters from v1.13 to v1.14

升级之前注意事项(翻译自官方文档):

  1. 1.13.0以上,使用kubeadm部署的kubernetes集群
  2. Swap分区需要disabled
  3. 集群的控制平面个数和etcd pods需要是确定的。
  4. 认真阅读release notes。
  5. 备份。主要是备份一些重要的组件,比如database等。虽然升级不会调整业务负载,仅仅调整kubernetes,但是备份总是没错的。
  6. 所有的容器都会被重启,因为hash值会变化。
  7. 只能够进行小版本的升级,并且升级过程不能够跳级,比如从1.y到1.y+1,而不能够从1.y到1.y+2

按照要求查看kubernetes 1.14 更改说明重点阅读Urgent Upgrade Notes,结合自己业务,并没有发现特别重大的变动,可以放心升级。

kubernetes集群是按照kubernetes 1.13 全新安装指南搭建,如下:

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[hall@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl get nodes
NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
192-168-10-14   Ready    master   36h    v1.13.0
192-168-10-18   Ready    <none>   103d   v1.13.0
192-168-10-21   Ready    master   104d   v1.13.0

业务数据备份,就不用介绍了。实际上安全起见最好先在测试集群上进行升级,通过后再考虑正式集群的升级。

升级过程主要变化的是kubernetes系统服务,重点是kubelet,所以将kubelet配置备份一下更为稳妥,方法如下:

1 查看kubelet服务配置:

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[root@192-168-10-94 ~]# systemctl status kubelet
● kubelet.service - kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
  Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
           └─10-kubeadm.conf
   Active: active (running) since 二 2019-03-19 18:38:46 CST; 1 weeks 1 days ago
     Docs: https://kubernetes.io/docs/
 Main PID: 6033 (kubelet)
    Tasks: 17
   Memory: 59.1M
   CGroup: /system.slice/kubelet.service
           └─6033 /usr/bin/kubelet --bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --config=/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml --cgroup-driver=cgroupfs --network-plugin=cni --pod-infra-container-image=re...

2 查看服务的配置文件 10-kubeadm.conf :

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[root@192-168-10-94 ~]# cat /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf
# Note: This dropin only works with kubeadm and kubelet v1.11+
[Service]
Environment="KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS=--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
Environment="KUBELET_CONFIG_ARGS=--config=/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
# This is a file that "kubeadm init" and "kubeadm join" generates at runtime, populating the KUBELET_KUBEADM_ARGS variable dynamically
EnvironmentFile=-/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env
# This is a file that the user can use for overrides of the kubelet args as a last resort. Preferably, the user should use
# the .NodeRegistration.KubeletExtraArgs object in the configuration files instead. KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS should be sourced from this file.
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/kubelet
ExecStart=
ExecStart=/usr/bin/kubelet $KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS $KUBELET_CONFIG_ARGS $KUBELET_KUBEADM_ARGS $KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS

3 备份涉及的配置文件

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/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf (可能并不存在,没有也没有关系)
/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf
/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env
/etc/sysconfig/kubelet

下面正式开始升级过程。

升级主控节点

升级之前,一定要确保具有多个控制节点,这样可以保障集群的可用。单一控制节点,升级万一挂了,怕是比较麻烦。添加控制节点的方法,参考上文的kubernetes 1.13 全新安装指南。

如果没有特殊说明本文除 kubectl 以外的命令,都是使用 root 账号执行。

1 先检查一下repo源中kubeadm是否更新到 1.14.0 的版本

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yum list --showduplicates kubeadm --disableexcludes=kubernetes

我本地的源没有找到 1.14.0 。 使用下面命令清理,后再行检查可以得到 1.14.0

yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=kubernetes clean all

2 再次查看kubeadm版本信息

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[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# kubeadm version
kubeadm version: &version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"13", GitVersion:"v1.13.4", GitCommit:"c27b913fddd1a6c480c229191a087698aa92f0b1", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2019-02-28T13:35:32Z", GoVersion:"go1.11.5", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}

3 安装kubeadm工具

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yum install -y kubeadm-1.14.0-0 --disableexcludes=kubernetes

4 确认kubeadm版本升级完成

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[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# kubeadm version  
kubeadm version: &version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"14", GitVersion:"v1.14.0", GitCommit:"641856db18352033a0d96dbc99153fa3b27298e5", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2019-03-25T15:51:21Z", GoVersion:"go1.12.1", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}

5 升级检查和方案

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[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# kubeadm upgrade plan
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
[upgrade] Making sure the cluster is healthy:
[upgrade/config] Making sure the configuration is correct:
[upgrade/config] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[upgrade/config] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
[upgrade] Fetching available versions to upgrade to
[upgrade/versions] Cluster version: v1.13.0
[upgrade/versions] kubeadm version: v1.14.0

Awesome, you're up-to-date! Enjoy!

kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0

这里的提示信息和官方文档有出入,不过这是正常的信息。

6 升级kubeadm到1.14

kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0

这个执行过程,视集群情况,大概会执行几分钟,输出信息也比较多,大概如下:

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[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
[upgrade] Making sure the cluster is healthy:

.....

[upgrade/staticpods] Component "kube-scheduler" upgraded successfully!
[upload-config] storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.14" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.14" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

[upgrade/successful] SUCCESS! Your cluster was upgraded to "v1.14.0". Enjoy!

[upgrade/kubelet] Now that your control plane is upgraded, please proceed with upgrading your kubelets if you haven't already done so.

7 检查CNI情况,确定是否要升级

kubernetes架构,网络部分确定Container Network Interface接口,具体实现交由其它组件。我的集群使用flannel,检查一下:

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kubectl get pods -n kube-system
...
kubectl describe pod/kube-flannel-ds-amd64-5xxh7 -n kube-system
...
Image:         quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64

使用的是 0.11, 查看flannel主页得知已经是最新版,这一步不用处理。

8 升级kubectl和kubelet

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yum install -y kubelet-1.14.0-0 kubectl-1.14.0-0 --disableexcludes=kubernetes

9 重启kubelet

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[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# systemctl restart kubelet
Warning: kubelet.service changed on disk. Run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to reload units.
[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@192-168-10-21 ~]# systemctl restart kubelet

实际上,重启kubelet失败,报错:Failed to start ContainerManager failed to initialise top level QOS containers。 排查过程请见附1

10 检查升级结果

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[hall@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl get nodes
NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
192-168-10-14   Ready    master   38h    v1.13.0
192-168-10-18   Ready    <none>   103d   v1.13.0
192-168-10-21   Ready    master   104d   v1.14.0

192-168-10-21的状态为 Ready ,版本也变为 1.14.0 ,主控节点升级成功。

其它控制节点升级

  1. 参考上文升级好kubeadm,kubectl和kubelet工具。

  2. 升级到1.14

主控节点已经执行了检查和升级,192-168-10-14只需要执行 kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0

不幸的是,又遇到了一点状况 failed to get APIEndpoint information for this node,排查过程请见附2

  1. 重启kubelet

  2. 检查升级结果

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    [hall@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl get nodes
    NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
    192-168-10-14   Ready    master   39h    v1.14.0
    192-168-10-18   Ready    <none>   103d   v1.13.0
    192-168-10-21   Ready    master   104d   v1.14.0

业务节点升级

1 临时备份

因为集群就一个业务节点,为安全起见,先调整一个控制节点,用于临时支撑业务:

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[tyhall51@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl taint node 192-168-10-14 node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
node/192-168-10-14 untainted

然后业务节点临时增加污点,防止升级期间调度:

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[tyhall51@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl drain 192-168-10-18 --ignore-daemonsets
node/192-168-10-18 cordoned
error: unable to drain node "192-168-10-18", aborting command...

There are pending nodes to be drained:
 192-168-10-18
error: cannot delete Pods with local storage (use --delete-local-data to override): kube-system/elasticsearch-logging-0, kube-system/elasticsearch-logging-1, kube-system/monitoring-influxdb-8b7d57f5c-2bhlw

2 安装kubeadm工具

3 升级kubedam到1.14

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[root@192-168-10-18 ~]# kubeadm upgrade node config --kubelet-version v1.14.0
[kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.14" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[upgrade] The configuration for this node was successfully updated!
[upgrade] Now you should go ahead and upgrade the kubelet package using your package manager.

4 升级kubectl和kubelet

kubelet同样需要重启

5 还原临时备份

先取消业务节点污点

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[tyhall51@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl uncordon 192-168-10-18
node/192-168-10-18 uncordoned

然后还原master节点

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[tyhall51@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl taint node 192-168-10-14 node-role.kubernetes.io/master=:NoSchedule
node/192-168-10-14 tainted

6 检查结果

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[tyhall51@192-168-10-21 ~]$ kubectl get nodes
NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
192-168-10-14   Ready    master   40h    v1.14.0
192-168-10-18   Ready    <none>   103d   v1.14.0
192-168-10-21   Ready    master   104d   v1.14.0

以上,完成了kubernetes从1.13到1.14的升级,整体上讲,升级过程比较轻松。总结一下升级过程:

  1. 详细阅读升级指南,完成重要业务信息备份,完成kubelet配置。
  2. 升级主要控制节点。
  3. 升级其它控制节点。
  4. 升级业务节点。

  1. kubelet重启失败

kubelet重启失败,systemctl status kubelet 中错误信息:

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Failed to start ContainerManager failed to initialise top level QOS containers

参考https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/43704提示在kubelet启动时候增加 –cgroups-per-qos=false –enforce-node-allocatable=“” 即可解决。之前备份kubelet的配置时候知道 /var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env 中定义kubelet的启动参数,在其中加上,重启kubelet,恢复正常。

  1. kubeadm 升级失败 [root@192-168-10-14 ~]# kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0 [preflight] Running pre-flight checks. [upgrade] Making sure the cluster is healthy: [upgrade/config] Making sure the configuration is correct: [upgrade/config] Reading configuration from the cluster... [upgrade/config] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml' [upgrade/config] FATAL: failed to getAPIEndpoint: failed to get APIEndpoint information for this node 根据提示,使用编辑 kubectl -n kube-system edit cm kubeadm-config -oyaml kubeadm-config, 调整apiEndpoints为: apiEndpoints: 192-168-10-21: advertiseAddress: 192.168.10.21 bindPort: 6443 192-168-10-14: advertiseAddress: 192.168.10.14 bindPort: 6443 继续执行kubeadm upgrade apply v1.14.0,正常完成。